Upper School

Curriculum

Upper School

Curriculum

Foreign Language

AP Latin

Prerequisite: Latin IV, Latin V, or departmental approval

In this course, students focus primarily on the literal translation, analysis, interpretation, and discussion of Caesar’s De bello Gallico and Vergil’s Aeneid. They read the entirety of the Aeneid over the summer and selected books of De bello Gallico over the first semester. Students translate selections from both works until May. The last month is spent on review and practice exams until the AP exam date. The last few weeks are spent on various topics of the student’s choosing. Options include, but are not limited to: Roman military tactics and Sallust, barbarian tribal histories and Tacitus, mythology and Ovid, Attic Greek, Medieval Latin, Ancient Mediterranean history, decline of the Roman Republic, and Plato, Socrates, Hypatia and Marcus Aurelius – the ancient philosophers. This course is designed to fully meet the expectations and requirements of the AP Latin Course Description prepared by the College Board.

Texts: Vergil’s Aeneid: Selected Readings from Books 1, 2, 4, and 6 (Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers Inc.), Caesar: Selections from his Comentarii De Bello Gallico (Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers Inc,), Caesar, The Gallic War, tr. Carolyn Hammond (Oxford University Press), Vergil’s Aeneid: Hero, War, Humanity, tr. G.B. Cobbold (Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers Inc.) and supplementary materials provided by the instructor.

AP Spanish Language and Culture

Prerequisites: Spanish IV and departmental approval

This course is designed to prepare students for the Advanced Placement Spanish Language and Culture Exam in May. The course is conducted solely in Spanish and provides many opportunities for students to practice the target language with their teacher and peers. This course provides a thorough review of grammar with activities that encourage internalization of vocabulary and that require independent thinking and writing ability. It also offers reading and listening from a variety of authentic resources and speaking in a wide range of contexts.

Text: Triángulo (Wayside Publishing)

American Sign Language I

American Sign Language (ASL) I is designed to take students who have no knowledge of sign language to the point where they can communicate with confidence in a variety of situations in the Deaf community. Early on, students focus on learning the manual alphabet, fingerspelling, vocabulary, greeting one another, and getting acquainted. They also learn the history of ASL, Deaf culture, and etiquette. Students learn about various prominent individuals within the Deaf community. 

Texts: A Basic Course in American Sign Language (T.J. Publishers, Inc.) and Signing Naturally.

American Sign Language II

Prerequisite: American Sign Language I or departmental approval 

This is a continuation of the introductory course in American Sign Language (ASL I). Students in this course continue to perfect their receptive and expressive skills through work in the classroom, and experience the opportunity to have guest speakers from the Deaf community. The students continue to explore Deaf history and current events in the Deaf community.  

Texts: A Basic Course in American Sign Language (T.J. Publishers, Inc.) and Signing Naturally.

American Sign Language III

Prerequisite: American Sign Language II or departmental approval 

This upper-level course is designed for those students who have completed two or more years of American Sign Language. Students further develop their receptive and expressive skills through the use of complex grammatical structures, dialogues, and storytelling. The students examine the experiences of the Deaf community in the context of broader historical trends in American and world history. 

Texts: A Basic Course in American Sign Language (T.J. Publishers, Inc.) and Signing Naturally: Level 3

American Sign Language IV

Prerequisite: American Sign Language III or departmental approval

This upper-level course is designed for those students who have completed three or more years of American Sign Language. Students further develop their receptive and expressive skills through the use of more complex grammatical structures, dialogues, and storytelling. This course focuses on idiomatic expressions in ASL. A large focus at this level is on written ASL and the transcription symbols used to indicate and support the non-manual elements of the message, not the signs themselves. Students learn how to sign by reading and understanding ASL gloss. 

Texts: A Basic Course in American Sign Language (T. J. Publishers), Signing Naturally, A Student’s Guide to Mastering ASL Grammar (Judaea Media) and American Sign Language: A Student Text, Units 1-9 (Gallaudet University Press).

Latin I

This course introduces students to the Latin language through the practice of reading. Grammar is presented as ancillary to the text and as the means by which the text is understood. Cases of nouns and tenses of verbs are presented through readings that lead students to a syntactical understanding. Students develop insight into the Graeco-Roman world and its cultural richness. Family life and the society of ancient Pompeii are highlighted as are the archaeological methods by which we understand that way of life. Oral as well as aural skills in the target language develop throughout the year. 

Text: Cambridge Latin Course, Unit 1 (Cambridge University Press)

Latin II

Prerequisite: Latin I or departmental approval

This course furthers students’ language study with more advanced grammar and more complex sentence structures. Reading continues to be the primary skill being developed. Historical context becomes a more significant focus. 

Text: Cambridge Latin Course, Unit II (Cambridge University Press)

Latin III

Prerequisite: Latin II or departmental approval

In this course, students continue to read adapted passages from the Cambridge series. Advanced grammar study continues. Cultural and historical references are highlighted. Mythology and ancient philosophical allusions are discussed. Students develop an understanding of more complex sentence structures and varied vocabulary. 

Text: Cambridge Latin Course, Unit III (Cambridge University Press)

Latin IV

Prerequisite: Latin III or departmental approval

In this course, students branch into original Latin prose and poetry. Advanced grammar study continues. Poetic and rhetorical devices, scansion, and historical references are studied in depth. Students begin to approach texts as literature and to evaluate them as such. Mythology and ancient philosophical allusions are also discussed. Students develop understanding and recognition of individual authors’ prose and poetic styles. History, both political and social, is studied so that literary pieces are read in the context in which they were written. 

Texts: Cambridge Latin Course, Unit IV (Cambridge University Press)

Spanish I

This course exposes students to elementary Spanish vocabulary and grammatical structures. All language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) are practiced, but students focus primarily on the speaking skills necessary to the foreign language experience. Upon successful completion of this course, students advance to Spanish II. 

Text: ¡Qué Chévere! (EMC Publishing)

Spanish II

Prerequisite: Spanish I or departmental approval

Students further their Spanish language study through the acquisition of new vocabulary and grammatical concepts. All language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) are practiced, but the focus remains on the speaking skills necessary to the foreign language experience. Using the target language, students engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions. They continue to discover the nature of the language through comparisons between Spanish and their native language, and further explore cultural concepts by contrasting the different Hispanic cultures with their own. Upon successful completion of this course, students advance to Spanish III. 

Text: ¡Qué Chévere! 2 (EMC Publishing)

Spanish III

Prerequisite: Spanish II or departmental approval

In this continuation of more complex Spanish, students expand their vocabulary and their conversational skills and spend more time on composition skills. Extensive study of grammar is reinforced with a variety of activities such as selections from readings and short videos. Students begin to address cross-cultural issues as they relate to Hispanic cultural traditions and values, and their own beliefs. 

Text: ¡Qué Chévere! 3 (EMC Publishing)

Spanish IV

Prerequisite: Spanish III or departmental approval

The main focus of this course is language acquisition and development. Instruction at this level is given almost exclusively in Spanish. Emphasis is placed on communication and interaction with the goal of enabling students to use the language appropriately with the teacher and with each other in a range of situations and for a variety of purposes. The skills of listening, speaking, writing, and reading are developed equally through integrated activities. The discussion of Spanish literature, the viewing of contemporary Spanish films, and the analysis of plots and characters play a greater part in this process. Cultural and ethnic diversity in Latin America and Spain as well as the life of Latinos in the United States are examined. 

Text: ¡Qué Chévere! 4 (EMC Publishing)

Spanish V

Prerequisite: Spanish IV or departmental approval

This course is designed to help students improve their writing and speaking skills, using a variety of films from various Spanish-speaking countries. Students are engaged in class discussions, essay writing, and oral presentations. Students are encouraged to analyze, to compare, and to contrast the social and cultural aspects of the Spanish-speaking countries around the world. Grammatical structures are revisited throughout the year, putting more emphasis on appropriate vocabulary, structures, and idiomatic expressions used in conversation and composition writing.

Texts: Cinema for Spanish Conversation (Focus Publishing, 2006) and Breaking the Spanish Barrier — Advanced (Breaking the Barrier, Inc., 2006)

History/Social Science

AP Macroeconomics

Prerequisite: Mathematics through precalculus is helpful.

Macroeconomics is the study of economic systems at the aggregate level. The focus of this course is on the structure and analysis of market economies. In market economies, attention is focused on individual choices and how these interact at the national and global levels. The measurement of national income, policy solutions, the operation of financial markets, international trade, inflation, unemployment, and economic crisis are discussed and reviewed within the context of this course. Students sit for the AP exam in May. 

Text: Macroeconomics for AP (Worth)

AP US Government & Politics

Prerequisite: US History

This is a year-long course that follows the suggested AP curriculum. The course culminates with the AP exam in May. This course is a historical study of the institutions of American government and a contemporary investigation of politics and current events. A high premium is placed upon class discussion and interactive activities. 

Texts: American Government (Houghton Mifflin), Perspectives on American Politics (Houghton Mifflin)

The Modern World

This course is a topical study of modern world history, bringing together aspects of art, and philosophy, with an emphasis on discussion and formal debate. It begins with Exploration and ends with the current state of the Middle East. The course is designed to begin where the Western Traditions course ends.

Text: World History; Human Legacy (Holt, Rhinehart, Winston)

The Modern World/Honors

This course is a topical study of modern world history, bringing together aspects of art, and philosophy, with an emphasis on discussion and formal debate. It begins with Exploration and ends with the current state of the Middle East. The course is designed to begin where the Western Traditions course ends. 

Text: World History; Human Legacy (Holt, Rhinehart, Winston)

US History

This course covers select topics in modern United States history. Select units of study require the in-depth study of people, events, and concepts that have had great impact on American society over our history. Homework, including guided reading and section summaries, is an integral part of the course. Each student is expected to be prepared for each class and to participate in class discussions as well as question and answer activities. 

Text: A History of US (Oxford)

US History/Honors

This course covers select topics in modern United States history. Select units of study require the in-depth study of people, events, and concepts that have had great impact on American society over our history. Homework, including guided reading and section summaries, is an integral part of the course. Each student is expected to be prepared for each class and to participate in class discussions as well as question and answer activities. 

Text: A History of US (Oxford)

Western Traditions

This course is a humanities-based study of Western Civilization. It begins with Ancient Greece and ends with the French Revolution. The course brings together history, art, and philosophy to give students a broader understanding of the different time periods. It is designed to lead into The Modern World course in 11th grade. 

Text: World History, Human Legacy (Holt, Rhinehart, Winston)

Western Traditions/Honors

This course is a humanities-based study of Western Civilization. It begins with Ancient Greece and ends with the French Revolution. The course brings together history, art, and philosophy to give students a broader understanding of the different time periods. It is designed to lead into The Modern World course in 11th grade. 

Text: World History, Human Legacy (Holt, Rhinehart, Winston)

Hispanics in the US: History, Literature & Culture

This year-long course is intended to give an overview of the historical, social, and political events and problems of Hispanic Americans living in the United States. The course broadly traces how US history has been influenced and shaped by Hispanic explorers, settlers, colonizers, and missionaries. It also highlights the contributions and achievements of the Hispanic community in several fields, including economics, law, and the arts. In addition, the course provides a detailed look at the history and continuing influence of the Hispanic presence in different geographic regions such as states with a significant Hispanic community. This course is taught in English.

Texts: Hispanics in the United States (St. Mary’s Press) and The Hispanic Presence in North America: From 1492 to Today (Facts on File Press).

Behavioral Science

Introduction to Psychology

Prerequisite: Biology

This course introduces students to the systematic and scientific study of the behavioral and mental processes of human beings. Course material familiarizes students to a number of the major subfields in psychology, including social psychology, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, learning, cognition, personality, intelligence, and abnormal psychology. Additionally, students learn about key figures in the history of psychology, discuss ethical implications revolving around psychological research, and improve their scientific literacy with course readings. This course is offered only to juniors and seniors.

Text: Myers, D. G., & DeWall, C. N. Psychology in Everyday Life (4th ed.). New York: Worth, Macmillan Learning, 2017.

STEM

AP Computer Science A

Prerequisite: Departmental approval

This course requires a meticulous approach by students and their teacher. This course introduces students to computer science with fundamental topics that include problem solving, design strategies and methodologies, organization of data (data structures), approaches to processing data (algorithms), analysis of potential solutions, and fluency in an object-oriented paradigm using Java. These techniques represent proven approaches for developing solutions that can scale up from small, simple problems to large, complex problems. This course emphasizes object-oriented and imperative problem solving and design. Students utilize and become familiar with the standard Java library from the AP Java subset. There is a structured lab component with hands-on lab experiences. Students learn the ethical and social implications of computing. After the AP Computer Science A exam, students participate in a computer programming project.  

Texts: Java Software Solutions for AP Computer Science (Pearson), Be Prepared for the AP Computer Science Exam in Java (Skylight), Barron’s AP Computer Science A (Barron’s), Blown to Bits: Your Life, Liberty, and Happiness After the Digital Explosion (Addison-Wesley).

Introduction to Computer Programming

Prerequisites: Algebra 1 and Geometry

This course introduces students to computer programming in Java. The study of programming requires a mechanism to express potential solutions precisely and concisely. The fundamental topics include problem solving, design strategies, and methodologies. Students are introduced to hardware, software, software engineering, syntax and style, objects and classes, data types, Boolean expressions, if-else statements, algorithms and iterations, strings, and arrays. Students test potential solutions to problems by running programs and learning the engineering process. This course emphasizes object-oriented and imperative problem solving and design. To acquaint students with the concepts of Java objects, the Greenfoot programming environment is used, which enables students to create games and simulations. The techniques taught in this course represent proven approaches for developing solutions that can scale up from small, simple problems to large, complex problems in the real world. 

Texts: Java Methods Object-Oriented Programming and Data Structures (Skylight), Introduction to Programming with Greenfoot: Object-Oriented Programming in Java with Games and Simulations (Pearson) and Barron’s AP Computer Science A (Barron’s)

Introduction to Engineering

Prerequisite: Current enrollment in or completion of Algebra 2/Trig or departmental approval

This advanced course introduces students to mechanical, electrical, and software engineering, and robotics, structured around the engineering method. The engineering method involves a systematic problem solving approach for generating and developing ideas into solutions and assessing a solution’s validity at any point in the development process. Students are divided into design and development teams, and brainstorm together to generate ideas and then design and build real-world projects. The students use Tetrix Prime robotics kits, breadboards, circuits, and the Arduino Uno Microcontroller. The Arduino is programmed using the Sketch environment in C++. During each step of the process, teams learn how to document and implement all the steps of the engineering process and create a working product within an established time limit. The students learn that engineering requires flexibility as new problems are encountered and solved.

The course explores aspects of mechanical power systems, gear ratios, torque, motor limits, and sensor devices. Students build working manipulators, for example, an arm, scoop, claw, or jaw, and learn about the various drive train types and multiple degrees of freedom. Aspects of electrical engineering are covered, including circuits and battery technologies. Software engineering work is required to program the Arduino to process sensor input and control movement. In addition, students are introduced to 3-D printing and basic 3-D modeling using Autodesk123. For the final project of the year, students demonstrate their understanding by building a light seeking robot or line seeking robot and compete in a class competition. 

Texts: Engineering Fundamentals Design, Principles and Careers (Goodheart-Willcox), The Beginner’s Guide to Engineering (Quantum Scientific), and Principles of Engineering (Dellmar Cengage).

English

English 9

English 9 students continue the refinement of written expression, the reinforcement of previously learned grammar and usage skills, and the development of new skills needed for college-level essays. Students approach writing topics in systematic stages— planning, drafting, revising, and editing—in order to write clear, coherent, organized college-level essays. Research techniques and proper use of documentation and search tools (including the internet) are explored. Students expand their vocabulary through an organized and systematic method of study using word parts—prefixes, roots, suffixes— to analyze and to understand words while reading or taking SAT-type tests.

Texts: Elements of Language (Holt, Rhinehart and Winston) and Elements of Language: Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics (Holt, Rhinehart and Winston)

English 9/Honors

The Honors version of this course covers the same basic curriculum as English 9, but in more depth and at a faster pace. English 9 students continue the refinement of written expression, the reinforcement of previously learned grammar and usage skills, and the development of new skills needed for college-level essays. Students approach writing topics in systematic stages— planning, drafting, revising, and editing—in order to write clear, coherent, organized college-level essays. Research techniques and proper use of documentation and search tools (including the internet) are explored. Students expand their vocabulary through an organized and systematic method of study using word parts—prefixes, roots, suffixes— to analyze and to understand words while reading or taking SAT-type tests. The Honors section covers the same basic curriculum but in more depth and at a faster pace. 

Texts: Elements of Language (Holt, Rhinehart and Winston) and Elements of Language: Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics (Holt, Rhinehart and Winston)

English 10

English 10 students continue to reinforce systematic stages of writing—planning, drafting, revising, and editing—in order to write clear, coherent, organized essays. Correct use of transitional devices, grammar, and usage are employed to create effective sentences, coherent paragraphs, and well-developed college-level essays. Students study professional models from a wide variety of essays: description, comparison/contrast, illustration, definition, and argument. Furthermore, students become familiar with and use the MLA style for all documentation in order to understand why proper documentation is needed to avoid plagiarism. Students continue to refine their researching techniques. In vocabulary, students expand their knowledge of word parts (initiated in grade 9) through an organized and systematic study of Latin and Greek prefixes, roots, and suffixes and then apply those skills to SAT-type words in order to define those words. 

Texts: The Bedford Handbook (Bedford/St. Martin’s), Developmental Exercises to accompany the Bedford Handbook (Bedford/St. Martin’s), Models for Writers Short Essays for Composition (Bedford/St. Martin’s) and Vocabulary from Latin and Greek Roots Book IV (Prestwick House).

English 10/Honors

The Honors version of this course covers the same basic curriculum as English 10, but in more depth and at a faster pace. English 10 students continue to reinforce systematic stages of writing—planning, drafting, revising, and editing—in order to write clear, coherent, organized essays. Correct use of transitional devices, grammar, and usage are employed to create effective sentences, coherent paragraphs, and well-developed college-level essays. Students study professional models from a wide variety of essays: description, comparison/contrast, illustration, definition, and argument. Furthermore, students become familiar with and use the MLA style for all documentation in order to understand why proper documentation is needed to avoid plagiarism. Students continue to refine their researching techniques. In vocabulary, students expand their knowledge of word parts (initiated in grade 9) through an organized and systematic study of Latin and Greek prefixes, roots, and suffixes and then apply those skills to SAT-type words in order to define those words. 

Texts: The Bedford Handbook (Bedford/St. Martin’s), Developmental Exercises to accompany the Bedford Handbook (Bedford/St. Martin’s), Models for Writers Short Essays for Composition (Bedford/St. Martin’s) and Vocabulary from Latin and Greek Roots Book IV (Prestwick House).

English 11

English 11 students continue to refine their writing skills in preparation for college-level essays. Emphasis in this course is placed on increased complexity of content and style and involves a variety of writing assignments, both formal and informal, to sharpen students’ writing skills. Students read and analyze the writing of accomplished authors as models for their own developing writing styles. Learning the entire process, students complete a fully documented research paper with an emphasis on proper documentation to avoid plagiarism. Grammar and vocabulary lessons are emphasized to aid in the successful expression of each student’s ideas through writing. With vocabulary, students use what they learned in grades 9 and 10 about prefix-root-suffix construction of words in order to dissect and to define SAT-type words and to increase reading comprehension. In addition, the college application process (especially the college application essay) is discussed. 

Texts: The Bedford Handbook (Bedford/St. Martin’s) and Developmental Exercises to accompany the Bedford Handbook (Bedford/St.Martin’s).

English 11/Honors

The Honors version of this course covers the same basic curriculum as English 11, but in more depth and at a faster pace. English 11 students continue to refine their writing skills in preparation for college-level essays. Emphasis in this course is placed on increased complexity of content and style and involves a variety of writing assignments, both formal and informal, to sharpen students’ writing skills. Students read and analyze the writing of accomplished authors as models for their own developing writing styles. Learning the entire process, students complete a fully documented research paper with an emphasis on proper documentation to avoid plagiarism. Grammar and vocabulary lessons are emphasized to aid in the successful expression of each student’s ideas through writing. With vocabulary, students use what they learned in grades 9 and 10 about prefix-root-suffix construction of words in order to dissect and to define SAT-type words and to increase reading comprehension. In addition, the college application process (especially the college application essay) is discussed. 

Texts: The Bedford Handbook 8th edition by Diana Hacker and Developmental Exercises to accompany the Bedford Handbook. Massachusetts: Bedford/St.Martin’s, 2010.

Literature

Literature 9: Foundations in Literature

This course builds a foundation of literary scholarship so students can feel comfortable experimenting with that foundation in subsequent years. The course is designed to expand student comprehension and understanding of literature through a balance of close reading and big picture discussions of fundamental works of literature. Students begin to identify and to analyze rhetorical devices employed by authors and determine how these devices contribute to the overall effectiveness of the works relative to critical interpretation, theme, and argument. An independent reading unit offers students their choice of texts and assessments. The curriculum is dedicated to providing the groundwork for further development of cognitive skills, reading and interpretive competence, and written discourse. In the Honors section, students are more self-directed, read more selections independently, and typically spend class time on analysis and interpretation rather than comprehension. 

Representative texts include: Lord of the Flies, Twelve Angry Men, and The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian.

Literature 9: Foundations in Literature/Honors

Honors designation elevates the scope and level of all skills and requires more independence. This course builds a foundation of literary scholarship so students can feel comfortable experimenting with that foundation in subsequent years. The course is designed to expand student comprehension and understanding of literature through a balance of close reading and big picture discussions of fundamental works of literature. Students begin to identify and to analyze rhetorical devices employed by authors and determine how these devices contribute to the overall effectiveness of the works relative to critical interpretation, theme, and argument. An independent reading unit offers students their choice of texts and assessments. The curriculum is dedicated to providing the groundwork for further development of cognitive skills, reading and interpretive competence, and written discourse. In the Honors section, students are more self-directed, read more selections independently, and typically spend class time on analysis and interpretation rather than comprehension. 

Representative texts include:Lord of the Flies, Twelve Angry Men, and The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian.

Literature 10: Global Literature

This is an objectives-based course, though two objectives set the tone for the class. The first is to increase literary comprehension, analysis, and appreciation. Students are introduced to literature as an art form throughout the globe, as they read selections from Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Europe. Second, students learn specific techniques to guide them in the process of critical analysis. They improve their abilities to see patterns in a wide range of texts that span time and continents. Class discussions revolve around critical inquiry and debate of issues raised by the text. In the Honors section, students are introduced to established literary theories, are more self-directed, read more selections independently, and typically spend class time on analysis rather than comprehension. 

Representative texts include The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, The Purple Hibiscus, The White Tiger, The Tempest and Master Harold and the Boys.

Literature 10: Global Literature/Honors

Honors designation elevates the scope and level of all skills and requires more independence. This is an objectives-based course, though two objectives set the tone for the class. The first is to increase literary comprehension, analysis, and appreciation. Students are introduced to literature as an art form throughout the globe, as they read selections from Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Europe. Second, students learn specific techniques to guide them in the process of critical analysis. They improve their abilities to see patterns in a wide range of texts that span time and continents. Class discussions revolve around critical inquiry and debate of issues raised by the text. In the Honors section, students are introduced to established literary theories, are more self-directed, read more selections independently, and typically spend class time on analysis rather than comprehension. 

Representative texts include The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, The Purple Hibiscus, The White Tiger, The Tempest and Master Harold and the Boys.

Literature 11: American Literature

Juniors undertake a broad survey of American literature spanning several genres and literary movements. As they read, students analyze American literature by reflecting on key questions: Is the American Dream myth or reality? How do race and gender affect one’s self-understanding or place in American society? How do social, psychological, and ideological influences impede genuine relationships between people? How does American literature respond to historical events? How do American authors use literary techniques to make meaning in a work of literature? In addition, student writing focuses on the development of the students’ analytic capabilities, as well as their controlled use of voice in both formal, critical essays and creative self-expression. Honors designation elevates the scope and level of all skills and requires more independence. 

Representative texts include: The Great Gatsby, The Crucible, The Catcher in the Rye, A Raisin in the Sun, and selections from Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, and Henry David Thoreau.

Literature 11: American Literature/Honors

Honors designation elevates the scope and level of all skills and requires more independence. Juniors undertake a broad survey of American literature spanning several genres and literary movements. As they read, students analyze American literature by reflecting on key questions: Is the American Dream myth or reality? How do race and gender affect one’s self-understanding or place in American society? How do social, psychological, and ideological influences impede genuine relationships between people? How does American literature respond to historical events? How do American authors use literary techniques to make meaning in a work of literature? In addition, student writing focuses on the development of the students’ analytic capabilities, as well as their controlled use of voice in both formal, critical essays and creative self-expression. 

Representative texts include: The Great Gatsby, The Crucible, The Catcher in the Rye, A Raisin in the Sun, and selections from Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, and Henry David Thoreau.

Mathematics

AP Calculus AB

Prerequisites: Precalculus or precalculus/honors and departmental approval

This is an advanced, honors-level course. Designed as the equivalent to a first semester college calculus course, this course covers the syllabus for Calculus AB recommended by the College Board. Qualified students sit for the AP exam in May. Since the focus of the course is a thorough understanding of the concepts underlying calculus, rather than a formulaic way of using it, the applications of each concept are thoroughly explored. 

Text: Calculus: Single Variable (Brooks/Cole)

Algebra 1

This traditional algebra course reviews topics covered in pre-algebra before making the transition from the concrete to the abstract concepts of algebra. Basic skill building leads into critical thinking to strengthen problem-solving abilities. Real-life connections and geometric applications are integrated throughout. Algebraic topics covered include linear functions, inequalities, systems of equations and inequalities, exponential functions, polynomials and factoring, quadratic functions, and rational and radical functions. The TI-83 or TI-84 Plus calculator is used extensively to reinforce the link between abstract concepts and visual representation.

Text: Algebra 1 (McDougal Littell)

Algebra 2/Trig

Prerequisites: Algebra 1 and Geometry or Geometry/Honors

This course is designed to give students a mastery of algebra, an introduction to trigonometry, and a firm foundation for precalculus concepts. The topic of Algebra 1 is reviewed and developed further, then new topics are introduced. In the final section of the course, students’ knowledge of right-angle trigonometry, encountered in geometry, is reviewed and extended to the trigonometry of any angle. 

Topics covered include functions, systems of linear equations and inequalities, quadratic functions, polynomial functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, rational and radical functions, matrices, conics, and trigonometry.

Text: Algebra 2 (McDougal Littell)

Algebra 2/Trig/Honors

Prerequisites: Algebra 1, Geometry/Honors, and departmental approval

This honors-level Algebra 2 with Trigonometry course assumes a solid foundation in first-year algebra as it examines, in more depth, different types of algebraic models, algebraic systems, and functional relationships. The last section of the course reviews the right-triangle trigonometry encountered in geometry, with a continuation of problems involving sides and angles of non-right triangles. Lastly, students gain exposure to trigonometric identities and equations that will serve as some of the foundational pieces of precalculus. 

Topics covered include functions, systems of linear equations and inequalities, quadratic functions, polynomial functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, rational and radical functions, matrices, conics, and trigonometry.

Text: Algebra 2 (McDougal Littell)

Calculus

Prerequisites: Precalculus or precalculus/honors

This course is designed to provide the students with a solid foundation for entering a college-level calculus class. Topics covered start with functions and limits that were introduced in precalculus and then develop and extend those concepts into derivatives and integrals. Examples will be explored throughout the year that cover a wide range of fields from physics and life sciences to business and economics.

Text: Hoffmann, Laurence D, & Bradley, Gerald L. Calculus: For Business, Economics and the Social and Life Sciences. McGraw Hill

Discrete Math

Prerequisites: Algebra 2/Trig or Algebra 2/Trig/Honors

Discrete Math is a course designed to prepare students for two likely college-level courses: College Algebra or Probability and Statistics. The first 60% of the course covers the application of Algebra 1 and Algebra 2 skills in the areas of business and finance. The remainder of the course focuses on probability as it relates to fairness and basic game theory. 

Text: Finite Math for the Managerial, Life and Social Sciences (Brooks/Cole)

Geometry

Prerequisite: Algebra 1

This course is designed to help students discover, learn, and apply geometry. Students use inductive reasoning to discover and to explore geometric postulates and theorems. Logical thinking is developed and practiced. Real-world applications encourage students to see the practical value of geometry. There are numerous opportunities to review and to use algebraic concepts. Topics covered include parallels, congruent triangles, similar figures and proportions, right triangles and introductory trigonometry, circles, area and volume, and coordinate geometry.

Text: Geometry, Concepts and Applications (Glencoe/McGraw-Hill)

Geometry/Honors

Prerequisites: Algebra 1 and departmental approval

This course integrates algebra and geometry. Students discover geometric properties using inductive and deductive reasoning. Logical thinking is developed and practiced through a variety of proof styles. Real-world applications encourage students to see the relevance of geometry. Concepts learned in Algebra 1, including coordinate geometry, are reviewed and used throughout the course. Topics include parallels, congruent triangles, similar figures and proportions, right triangles and introductory trigonometry, circles, area and volume, and coordinate geometry.

Text: Geometry (McGraw-Hill)

Multivariable Calculus

Prerequisites: AP Calculus AB and departmental approval

Multivariable Calculus takes the concepts of limit, derivative, and integral beyond the function-based work of AP Calculus AB. The relationship between parametric, polar, and vector forms of equations are explored primarily in two and three dimensions; although, some work in more than three dimensions may be explored. Some concepts from linear algebra or differential equations may be included. All topics from AP Calculus BC will be covered. 

Text: Calculus Early Transcendentals (Brooks/Cole)

Precalculus

Prerequisite: Algebra 2/Trig or Algebra 2/Trig/Honors

This advanced course assumes a strong background in algebra and its use in problem-solving. Building on this foundation, the course reviews and extends many of the topics encountered in earlier algebra courses, with particular attention to trigonometry and analytic geometry. The alternative polar system is studied and its application to conics and the real-world is explored. The course concludes with an introduction to calculus. Topics covered include polynomial functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, non-right triangle trigonometry and analytical trigonometry, conics and the polar coordinate system, sequences and series, and an introduction to limits.

Text: Advanced Mathematical Concepts: Precalculus with Applications. (Glencoe/McGraw-Hill)

Precalculus/Honors

Prerequisites: Algebra 2/Trig or Algebra 2/Trig/Honors and departmental approval

This course is designed to prepare students for the AP Calculus AB course and for subsequent college-level courses. Emphasis is given to the relations between multiple ways of modelling mathematical ideas and the underlying relationships between them. 

Text: Advanced Mathematical Concepts (Glencoe)

Probability & Statistics

Prerequisite: Algebra 2/Trig or Algebra 2/Trig/Honors or Precalculus or Precalculus/Honors

This senior-level course explores a range of topics in probability and statistics, with the greater part of the year focused on concepts relating to statistics. Study of descriptive statistics is followed by rules of probability, binomial distributions, and the normal bell curve. Lastly, we examine the inferential branch of statistics dealing with confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, correlation, and linear regression. Students complete three major projects during the year.

Text: Elementary Statistics (Prentice Hall)

Performing Arts

Chorus

This course is designed for students to develop a greater vocal ability and musicality performing in a vocal ensemble. Students are instructed on how to develop aural and sight-reading skills necessary to maintain a competent vocal presence in the ensemble. Participation in this class fosters greater appreciation of and insight into a variety of choral genres and vocal repertoire. These objectives are met by chorus members who participate in vocal warm-ups and exercises, Solfège instruction, and rehearsing vocal octavos (works). 

Texts: Sing at First Sight: Foundations in Choral Sight-Singing (Alfred Publishing), The Choral Warm-Up Collection: A Sourcebook of 167 Choral Warm-Ups Contributed by 51 Choral Directors (Alfred Publishing), Evoking Sound: The Choral Warm-Up Method: Procedures, Planning and Core Vocal Exercises (GIA Publications), The Complete Choral Warm-Up Book: A Sourcebook for Choral Directors (Alfred Publishing), The Sight-Singer: A Practical Sight-Singing Course for Two-Part Mixed or Three-Part Mixed Voices(CPP/Belwin), Sing & See (Computer Software) (CantOvation Ltd.), Diction for Singers: A Concise Reference for English, Italian, Latin, German, French and Spanish Pronunciation (Pst…Inc.), Choral Director: The Choral Director’s Management Magazine (Symphony Publishing), and vocal octavos selected by instructor.

Jazz Band

Students further develop their skills with a concentration on traditional jazz standards. The styles which are studied include: Swing, Bebop, Cool, Latin, Funk, and Rock. There is a strong emphasis on the development of improvisation, scales, and chords. Jazz history and music theory are also incorporated into the class. There are ample opportunities for performances both in and out of school. 

Texts: The Real Book, Exercises and Arrangements, and Vince McCool Handouts

Rock, Pop & Blues

Students further develop their skills with a concentration on Rock and Blues arrangements. There is a strong emphasis on the development of improvisation, scales, and chords. Music theory and opportunities for performance are incorporated into the class. 

Texts: The Real Book, Exercises and Arrangements, Vince McCool Handouts

String Ensemble

This course is designed to continue the development of advanced string techniques while exploring various genres of music. The students play Classical and Popular Music as a small chamber ensemble. 

Texts: String Quartet and Chamber String Music, Exercises and Scales, String Explorer Book 2, and String Explorer Book 3

Music Production

Prerequisite: Departmental approval

Music Production is a three-phased course designed to expose and teach students about music technology, songwriting/basic music theory, and the recording process. Each phase is divided into units and culminates in a project. The closing weeks of class are dedicated to writing, recording, and mixing a two-song “demo” project which requires the application of all skills acquired.

Group of students play instruments and sing

Science

AP Biology

Prerequisites: Biology, Chemistry, and departmental approval

This is an advanced-level biology course – including the chemistry of life, and plant and animal physiology – designed to be the equivalent of a freshman biology course at the college level. It covers the syllabus recommended by the College Board and prepares students to take the AP Biology exam in May. Classes consist of discussions, lectures, journal projects, and an extensive laboratory component, requiring students to demonstrate, both in technique and analysis, their thorough understanding of the major concepts. Creative ways to explain key concepts are explored and there is an extensive use of technology, including Internet explorations, animation presentations, and virtual labs. This course is intensive, challenging on multiple levels, and includes a comprehensive reading element. 

Text: AP Edition Biology (Pearson)

AP Chemistry

Prerequisites: Chemistry, Algebra 2/Trig or Algebra 2/Trig/Honors, and departmental approval

This is an advanced-level chemistry course designed to be the equivalent of a freshman chemistry course at the college level. It covers the syllabus recommended by the College Board and prepares students to take the Advanced Placement Chemistry exam in May. Classes consist of discussions, lectures, problems, and an extensive laboratory component, requiring students to demonstrate, both in technique and analysis, their thorough understanding of the major concepts. Creative ways to explain key concepts are explored and there is an extensive use of technology, including Internet explorations, animation presentations, and virtual labs. The course is intensive, challenging on multiple levels, and includes a problem-solving element. 

Text: Chemistry: The Central Science (Pearson)

AP Physics C: Mechanics

Prerequisites: Completion of, or current enrollment in Calculus or AP Calculus AB

Physics is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Students explore how to model simple systems, applying Newtonian mechanics to make predictions of situations frequently experienced every day. This is an advanced-level physics course, utilizing calculus, and is designed to be equivalent to a first-semester freshman college-level physics class. Material covered during this class corresponds to the material recommended by the College Board and prepares students to take the AP Physic C: Mechanics exam in May. 

Text: Serway and Jewett. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2013.

Biology

Biology is the study of life. The primary goal of this course is for students to become familiar with the concepts, principles, and theories that allow biologists to understand life and the natural environment. We begin our study of life by understanding the scientific process and developing our investigative skills. We then focus on the characteristics of all living organisms, including their structures, the functions of their structures, and their environments. This course is designed to help students gain an appreciation for the various (and fascinating!) real-life applications of biology as well as to prepare students for the AP Biology course, in addition to other advanced science courses. 

Text: Biology: The Dynamics of Life (Glencoe/McGraw-Hill)

Biology/Honors

Prerequisites: Current enrollment in Geometry or Geometry/Honors and/or departmental approval

Biology/Honors is an accelerated and in-depth introductory biology course designed to inspire curiosity and analytical thinking. Emphasis is placed on understanding the interrelationship between concepts covered. The curriculum ranges from topics that involve the very small—cells and molecular biology—to the very large—biomes. Relating topics to everyday experiences makes understanding more manageable. Theory is supported by lab activities, hands-on work, and practical investigations. 

Text: CK-12 Biology Concepts

Chemistry

Prerequisite: Biology and completion of, or current enrollment in Algebra 2/Trig or Algebra 2/Trig/Honors

Chemistry involves the study of materials and works to explain occurrences in the physical world. The key to understanding the chemical phenomena is an awareness of the underlying patterns. Each concept in the curriculum is supported by hands-on laboratory exercises; seeing the interactions of chemicals reinforces the fundamental principles and increases the students’ level of involvement in the subject. Whenever possible, examples that are relevant to the students’ everyday lives are incorporated into the course. 

Text:An Introduction to Chemistry, (Chiral Publishing Company)

Environmental Science

Prerequisite: Biology or Biology/Honors

The primary goal of this course is to become familiar with the concepts, principles, and theories required to understand the natural world, identify and analyze environmental problems caused by nature and humans, evaluate the risks associated with these problems, and examine possible solutions for resolving or preventing them. Students begin their study of the environment by understanding the scientific process and developing their investigation skills. Students then focus on the structure of Earth, the processes occurring within it, how humans alter these natural systems, the cultural, social, and economic context of environmental problems, and how to achieve sustainability in order to protect our planet. This course is designed to help students gain an appreciation for the world in which we live. 

Text: Environmental Science (Harcourt Press)

Forensic Science

Prerequisites: Biology and Environmental Science or Chemistry. Juniors and seniors only.

As an integrated science, forensic science provides students the opportunity to learn the application of information from the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, law, medicine, and professional/technical writing. The course focuses on crime scene investigations, evaluation of evidence, and laboratory techniques. Inquiry-based lab activities, case studies, field trips, guest speakers, and Internet research provide students with the opportunity to study and to apply the skills of a forensic scientist. 

Text: Forensic Science for High School (Kendall/Hunt)

Physics

Prerequisites: Chemistry and completion of, or current enrollment in Precalculus or Precalculus/Honors 

Physics is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Through the study of mechanics, students spend the first semester exploring how to model systems and make predictions of situations frequently experienced every day. This includes learning about all of the various combinations of the base units of length and time (length, velocity, and acceleration, specifically in the context of gravity) and then expanding those concepts by including the base unit of mass which allows the class to discuss weight, force, work, and power. During the second semester, other topics of physics are introduced, beginning with fluids and moving into the kinetic theory of gases and the ideal gas law. The course concludes with the study of electricity and magnetism. 

Text: Physics: Principles with Applications Updated (Pearson-Prentice Hall)

Physiology and Public Health

Prerequisite: Biology

This course is a multidisciplinary course designed to give students exposure to different fields and career options in science. The course begins with human anatomy and physiology, covering the major body systems and then shifts its focus to public health where different types of disease outbreaks and community health are discussed. Students get a good appreciation for public health and career fields within public health. This course is designed to give students an overview of public health topics, including epidemiology, disease prevention, nutrition, and public health policy. First Aid training and nutritional education are incorporated in order to gain a greater understanding of community and public health. Emphasis is placed on understanding the interrelationship between basic biological concepts as they relate to physiology and public health. Theory is supported by lab activities, hands-on work, and practical investigations. This course is for seniors only.

Texts:

Campbell, Reece, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Winickoff, and Jackson. Biology Eighth edition. Boston: Pearson, 2008.
Mader and Windelspecht. Biology 12th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education, 2016
Multiple sources (Movies, news and journal articles, other science textbooks)

Disease and Biotechnology

Prerequisite: Biology 

Disease and Biotechnology is a course that teaches students how different topics in biology intersect with disease and modern biotechnology. In the laboratory, students learn basic techniques and gain experience with instrumentation such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), biochemical assays, and DNA Electrophoresis as they relate to modern biotechnology. Basic biochemistry is introduced through hands-on practice of laboratory techniques. This course is designed to give students an overview of emerging diseases, immunology, epidemiology, microbiology, genetics, and modern biotechnology. The focus is on the study of modern biotechnology on emergent diseases as it relates to populations in the United States and around the world. Theory is supported by lab activities, hands-on work, and practical investigations. This course is for seniors only.

Texts:

Campbell, Reece, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Winickoff, and Jackson. Biology Eighth edition. Boston: Pearson, 2008.
Mader and Windelspecht. Biology 12th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education, 2016
Multiple sources (Movies, news and journal articles, other science textbooks)

Senior Humanities

AP English Literature and Composition

Students in AP English Literature and Composition engage in the careful reading and critical analysis of poetry, short stories, novels, and plays from a variety of genres and time periods. Close, thoughtful reading is expected as students take time to unpack a work’s complexity, learning to create various levels of meaning while analyzing authors’ methods. Students employ established literary theories for their analysis, as well as develop an appreciation for the scope and influence of certain works. The composition portion of the course is challenging, in that students are required to write carefully worked, expertly supported critical essays as well as informal writing pieces, including reading response journals and creative pieces. In addition to compositions, students read independently, take objective and written tests, study vocabulary, create presentations, and plan discussions. Students may take the AP exam in May. 

Representative texts include: A Prayer for Owen Meany, The Life of Pi, Oedipus Rex Trilogy, The Handmaid’s Tale and King Lear.

20th Century Culture & Thought
This elective course is designed to introduce students to the major 20th Century cultural and philosophical developments that occurred alongside the well-known political events. Students study a host of different texts, from literature and history to poetry and philosophy. To better prepare students for their impending transition to college, the course is strictly writing based, as each semester, the class is asked to turn in at least one major paper, take two essay-based exams, and compose a number of shorter pieces based on the readings. Works read in the first semester include No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre, The Nietzsche Reader, and sections from Studs Terkel’s Hard Times.
Constructing the Past: The Role of Literature, Film, Music, and TV in Shaping History

This course examines how literature, film, music, and television influence our contemporary understanding of diverse historical characters and events. We look at topics as diverse as Cleopatra, Stalinist oppression, feminism, and the Vietnam War and we ask a range of questions. These questions include how our chosen media influence historical understanding and reflect historical change, and how the media can play a role in historical change. Working generally on media literacy, there is an emphasis on reading and watching works critically and on writing complex responses to the questions raised.

Works studied include: Anthony & Cleopatra (William Shakespeare), A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch (Alexander Solzhenitsyn), “The Story of an Hour” (Kate Chopin), The Deer Hunter (Michael Cimino), and the war protest music of Bob Dylan and Pete Seeger.

Creative Writing
This course is designed for the accomplished student writer who would like to explore a variety of writing styles and genres including, but not limited to poetry, short stories, plays, creative nonfiction, and research writing. Students study the organized structure of lines, stanzas, sentences, paragraphs, and larger discursive patterns to introduce them to the semantic, structural, and rhetorical resources and strategies used in order to elicit a response through written communication. No matter the style being studied, students learn how to organize their thoughts into clear, focused, and logical structures. In addition, students expand their language base in vocabulary through systematic activities that enhance the understanding of specific terminology needed to effectively communicate in each creative style of writing.

Visual Arts

AP Studio Art 2-D Design

Prerequisites: Advanced Art and/or Independent Art and departmental approval

AP Studio Art is comprised of three separate portfolio advanced placement art courses. The first is Studio Art: Drawing Portfolio, which provides students with the opportunity for broad interpretation of drawing and the use of media. The second is Studio Art: 2-D Design Portfolio, which enables students to integrate the elements and principles of art applied in a decisive manner to two-dimensional (2-D) design issues. The third is Studio Art: 3-D Design Portfolio, which uses the same integration process applied to three-dimensional (3-D) objects such as sculptures. This advanced-level course is for highly motivated, disciplined, and serious art students. Each section of the course challenges students to address ethical tenets, and to demonstrate artistic integrity and a thorough knowledge of plagiarism. The portfolio sections are designed as the equivalent to a first-semester college art course, and covers the requirements recommended for AP Studio Art by the College Board. Each student submits a portfolio of work for evaluation in May. The College Board requires that each portfolio contain three specific required sections: quality, concentration, and breadth.

Advanced Art

Prerequisites: Art I or Art I and departmental approval

This course is designed for students with a more advanced understanding of drawing, painting, and three-dimensional works of art. There is a prerequisite of at least one previous art class in two- or three-dimensional art. Expectations made of students in this class are higher than those made in other art electives. Creative discipline, solid work ethic, and a strong desire to create are important characteristics of those who elect to take this course.

Art I: Foundations in Art
Students taking this course are reacquainted or newly exposed to various drawing, painting, and sculpture-based media, and assignments incorporating the use and effects of line, shape, form and composition. The application of values, tones, and textures, in drawing, relief, and three-dimensional works are part of the course. Still life, portrait, landscape, and abstractions are among the subjects explored. Art history, the process of critique, and understanding aesthetic issues promote awareness and growth in the fundamentals of art and design. This course challenges students to address ethical tenets, and to demonstrate artistic integrity and a thorough knowledge of plagiarism.
Art II: Elements and Principles of Design

Prerequisite: Art I

This course provides students with the opportunity to strengthen basic skills acquired in Foundations in Art. Fundamentals of design, drawing, painting, pottery, sculpture, collage, and art history are explored further. Seeing and interpreting form, proportion, and perspective from life and photographs are part of this class, strengthening perceptual skills. Art history, the process of critique, and understanding aesthetic issues promote awareness and growth in the fundamentals of art and design. This course challenges students to address ethical tenets, and to demonstrate artistic integrity and a thorough knowledge of plagiarism.

Ceramics
This course introduces students to clay as a medium through a variety of hand-building methods such as pinch, coil, and slab construction. Students explore different finishing and glazing techniques, including burnishing, texturing, sgraffito, and wax resist. Emphasis for this course is placed on craftsmanship and the development of aesthetics, form, and function. Knowledge of related health issues and safe studio practices are also required. The curriculum is adjusted at each level of progress to meet the individual needs of the student.
Independent Art

Prerequisite: Departmental approval

Students in this course have an opportunity to develop their skills and create works for inclusion in their art portfolios. Students who elect independent art must demonstrate a high level of commitment and strong work ethic in order to produce quality artwork. Students initiate, define, and solve visual arts problems independently and are required to keep a sketchbook, quarterly goals, and daily logs. Students may choose to work with two-dimensional (2-D) and/or three-dimensional (3-D) design issues with the expectation of original creative thinking. This course challenges students to address ethical tenets, and to demonstrate artistic integrity and a thorough knowledge of plagiarism.

Independent Ceramics
Students in this course have an opportunity to develop their skills and create works for inclusion in their art portfolios. Students who elect independent ceramics must demonstrate a high level of commitment and strong work ethic in order to produce quality artwork. Students initiate, define, and solve visual arts problems independently and are required to keep a sketchbook, quarterly goals, and daily logs. Students may choose to create clay works, using handbuilding methods of construction, sculpture and relief, as well as wheel thrown pottery with the expectation of original, creative thinking. This course challenges students to address ethical tenets, and to demonstrate artistic integrity and a thorough knowledge of plagiarism.
Web and Graphic Design
The course covers basic and classic design principles, graphic design, and integration of visual elements into web formats. Students begin by exploring basic design elements (line, shape, texture, color) and principles (e.g. repetition, emphasis, scale/proportion, balance) both by hand and digitally, with importance placed on creating visual interest and organizing elements and information. Students build skills and experience using Adobe software (Illustrator, Photoshop, InDesign) and learn how these programs function together. Throughout the course, students develop good research habits by identifying and collecting successful and/or popular designs from books, magazines, marketing materials, and film/video. Students learn to integrate typographical elements and written content into the visual whole of their designs. Projects introduce a variety of visual formats and conceptual themes and emphasize the development of holistic practical and skill-building techniques. The course also covers web design and website creation. Integrating knowledge and skills learned throughout the course, students develop individual web portfolios designed to showcase a range of projects and ideas. Importance is placed on developing and enhancing individual craft and style and finding visual identity.
Yearbook

This elective is designed to guide students through the process of creating the annual K-12 yearbook. Enrolled students serve as the editors and staff of the McLean School Yearbook. The multi-faceted nature of the course requires that students not only develop skills such as gathering information, writing copy and captions, understanding photography, and copy editing, but also work in and out of class to meet deadlines for this publication. A Jostens yearbook representative works and meets with the class to discuss layout techniques. During the fourth quarter, when yearbook pages are completed, each student works on creative projects such as photo-literary projects and presentations. In this last portion of the course, students apply the skills learned in the first three quarters of the year to projects that interest them personally. 

Text: Jostens. 1, 2, 3 Student Yearbook Guide: The Ultimate Yearbook.